Référence bibliographique 
Tremblay, Richard E. 2012. «Developmental Origins of Aggression: From Social Learning to Epigenetics». Dans The Future of Criminology , sous la dir. de Rolf Loeber et Welsh, Brandon C., p. 20-29. New York: Oxford University Press.
«This chapter explains that […] the author became convinced that some of the developmental origins of antisocial behavior were situated in the period prior to kindergarten. This chapter especially focuses on toddler’s aggression, anger, oppositional behavior, defiance, and overt disregard for rules. The author states that he is much aware of environmental factors that impinge on the development of antisocial behaviors, including intergenerational transmission of the behaviors.» (p. 20)
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«Research on the development of antisocial behavior during early childhood has helped us understand the early environmental risk factors for chronic trajectories of antisocial behavior (Tremblay 2010). Most of these risk factors can be identified prior to or at the start of pregnancy: mother’s behavior problems during adolescence, mother’s poor education, mother’s first pregnancy at a young age, mother’s depression, mother’s smoking during pregnancy, dysfunctional relations between mother and father, and low family income. Sex of the child, a genetic characteristic, is by far the most robust predictor. There is also good evidence from quantitative genetic studies (mainly twin studies) and molecular genetic studies that genetic factors are strongly implicated in effects that can be observed soon after birth. New evidence from gene expression studies (epigenetic) suggest that the numerous environmental risk factors related to the mother may start to have their impact on the child’s developing brain and eventual self-control problems during fetal life and, soon after, through their impact on gene expression. There is a strong possibility that this mechanism, a well-kept secret until very recently, is possibly the main nature-nurture mechanism through which antisocial behavior is transmitted, amplified, or muted from generation to generation.» (p. 24)