Référence bibliographique 
Tarabulsy, George M., Pearson, Jessica, Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier, Bussières, Ève-Line, Madigan, Sheri, Lemelin, Jean-Pascal, Duchesneau, Andrée-Anne, Hatier, David-Emmanuel et Royer, François. 2014. «Meta-Analytic Findings of the Relation Between Maternal Prenatal Stress and Anxiety and Child Cognitive Outcome ». Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 35, no 1, p. 38-43.
«The purpose of this report is to conduct a meta-analysis of studies that have addressed the relation between MPSA [maternal prenatal stress or anxiety] and early child cognitive development by considering all reported associations between the 2 sets of variables across studies and to examine the potential contribution of different moderators in understanding this association.» (p. 38-39)
«[A] total of 11 studies, reporting 27 MPSA-child cognitive outcome effect sizes were identified as relevant for this study. These studies include a total N of 5903 mother-child dyads. Sample size ranges from 66 to 3139.» (p. 40)
Type de traitement des données :
«The results of the present meta-analysis underline 2 critical points. First, there seems to be a consistent, low-level association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety (MPSA) and later child cognitive development. Even in the low-risk circumstances that most pregnancies afford in the western world, where almost all of the current studies were conducted, stress and anxiety during pregnancy are meaningfully and negatively associated with later child cognitive outcome. The magnitude of the effect size is similar to that obtained when examining the relation between MPSA and birth-related variables such as Apgar scores, birth weight, or gestational age and supports the current consensus surrounding the proposal that maternal stress and anxiety are related to fetal programming processes beyond the immediate perinatal circumstances, even under normative, low-risk circumstances. However, results do vary significantly across studies,
indicating that potential moderating variables are worth considering and that further study in this area be conducted with care. Specifically, the results reveal that studies that report on more objective life events as indicators of MPSA yield greater effect sizes than those that pertain to pregnancy-related stress or other subjective indicators of the MPSA experience.» (p. 41)