Référence bibliographique 
Leviten-Reid, Catherine. 2012. «Organizational Form, Parental Involvement, and Quality of Care in Child Day Care Centers ». Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-57.
«This article has three objectives. The first is to examine how, in practice, cooperatives differ from noncooperative, nonprofit child day care centers as well as for-profit child day care centers in terms of parental involvement in day-to-day operations and governance practices. The second objective is to compare the performance of cooperative child day care centers versus noncooperative, nonprofit child day care centers as well as for-profit child day care centers using process quality as the outcome variable. The third objective is to test whether a specific dimension normally associated with parent cooperatives, namely, parent control of the board of directors, is associated with the quality of care provided to preschool children.» (p. 2)
«This research has three hypotheses.
Hypothesis 1: Cooperatives will feature a greater level of parental involvement in the operations and governance of their child day care centers compared to both independent nonprofit child day care centers and for-profit child day care centers;
Hypothesis 2: Parent cooperatives will provide higher-quality care than both independent nonprofit and for-profit child day care centers;
Hypothesis 3: A specific attribute often associated with cooperative child day care centers but also found in some noncooperative, nonprofit child day care centers, namely, parental involvement in governance, will predict higherquality care.» (p. 6)
«The data used in this paper come from phase two of the You Bet I Care! (YBIC!) study. Cross-sectional data were collected in 1998 on child day care centers and workers across Canada; the purpose was to develop an in-depth understanding of the quality of child day care services and the labor conditions of child care workers. Data on quality were collected from seven different provincial and territorial jurisdictions: New Brunswick, Québec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. […] The sample used in this present research consists of 69 for-profit child day care centers, 73 independent nonprofit child day care centers, and 41 cooperative child day care centers (N = 183).» (p. 7)
Type de traitement des données :
«This research found that, overall, cooperative child day care centers feature greater levels of parental involvement in operations and governance compared to independent nonprofit and for-profit centers. Cooperatives (as well as independent nonprofits) significantly differ from for-profit child day care centers in terms of parental involvement in fundraising, physical care of the center or the grounds, and the attendance at, or organization of, special events. A comparison of cooperative and independent non-profit child day care centers shows nonsignificant but similar patterns with respect to fundraising, the physical care of the center or the grounds, and the provision of supplies or labor. Note, however, that with the exception of fundraising, parental involvement in operations was commonly found to be voluntary in nature rather than required of parents. What is also noteworthy is that no association was found between organizational form and the requirement for parents to participate in the classroom and that only 3% of cooperative child day care centers had this type of involvement as an integral component of enrollment. The nature and level of involvement in the operations of child day care cooperatives can likely be explained by the fact that these centers provide full-time care to children, and thus, parents are working full-time.» (p. 16)