Référence bibliographique 
Gupta, Rina, Nower, Lia, Derevensky, Jeffrey L., Blaszczynski, Alex, Faregh, Neda et Temcheff, Caroline. 2012. «Problem Gambling in Adolescents: An Examination of the Pathways Model ». Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 29, no 3, p. 575-588.
«The current study aimed to assess whether or not the profile and the defining characteristics that form the three subtypes of disordered gamblers proposed in the Pathways Model are applicable to adolescents.» (p. 578)
«It is hypothesized youth problem gamblers will group into distinct etiological subtypes, characterized by the presence or absence of emotional vulnerabilities, family problems, abuse and impulsivity. Attentional deficits are hypothesized to be unique to some subtypes but not all.» (p. 579)
«A total of 1,133 adolescents (male = 558, 49.5 %; female = 569, 50.5 %) from English speaking high schools in Quebec (n = 994, 87.7 %) and Ontario (n = 139, 12.3 %) participated in the study. The ages of participants from the overall sample ranged from 13 to 18 (mean = 15.6, SD = 1.05).» (p. 579)
Questionnaire (Gambling Activities)
Type de traitement des données :
«The current findings support many of the tenets of the Pathways Model. In particular, the results support the idea of several distinct subtypes of adolescents experiencing gambling-related problems. The results from the LCA [latent class analysis] concludes five distinct subtypes/pathways of adolescent problem gamblers, three of which bearing great resemblance to those originally proposed by Nower and Blaszczynski (2004) for adolescents. As hypothesized in the model, we found a subtype of problem gamblers who are devoid of any psychopathology (Class 2) as proposed for Pathway 1; we also obtained a subtype of problem gamblers who are characterized by past trauma (childhood abuse), depression, self-hatred, family conflict, and suicidal tendencies (Class 5) as proposed for Pathway 2; and similar to what was proposed for Pathway 3, we obtained a subtype of problem gamblers that is primarily antisocial and impulsive in nature (Class 1). In addition, we obtained a depression only subtype (which might be unique to an adolescent sample) as well as a subtype that has both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Actually, the Pathways Model does account for such a subtype, hypothesizing some overlap between Pathways 2 and 3 for indicators of emotional functioning.» (p. 586)