Référence bibliographique 
Guay, Frédéric, Ratelle, Catherine, Larose, Simon, Vallerand, Robert J. et Vitaro, Frank. 2013. «The Number of Autonomy-Supportive Relationships: Are More Relationships better for Motivation, Perceived Competence, and Achievement? ». Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 38, no 4, p. 375-382.
«The general goal of this study was to compare the educational correlates associated with distinct profiles of autonomy-supportive relationships in a sample of young adolescents. A first objective was to identify distinct groups of students based on their perceptions of autonomy support received from three sources: mother, father, and teacher. […] A second objective was to compare these groups of students in terms of their regulation types, perceived competence, and achievement in French.» (p. 377)
«[T]his study tests the hypothesis that receiving autonomy support from many significant individuals (i.e., mother, father, and teacher) would better sustain motivation, perceived competence, and achievement over receiving autonomy support from only a few individuals.» (p. 375)
«The Quebec Ministry of Education provided us with a random, stratified sample of 4000 high school students for the 2007–2008 school year. The students were representative of the 430,000 public high school students in grades 7, 8, and 9 in the province of Quebec.» (p. 377)
Questionnaire Learning Climate
Type de traitement des données :
«A first group of students (17%) perceived their mother, father, and teacher as non-autonomy-supportive. A second group (7%) perceived their father as non-autonomy-supportive and mother and teacher as moderately to highly autonomy- supportive. A third group (76%) perceived all sources as moderately autonomy-supportive. A chi-square test revealed that a greater proportion of students living with their mother only belonged to the Father Low group, suggesting that less frequent contact with father explains the Father Low group. Moreover, results of multiple comparisons revealed group differences on autonomous regulations (i.e., intrinsic and identified) and controlled regulations (i.e., introjected and external), perceived academic competence, and achievement. Specifically, students who perceived all sources as moderately autonomy-supportive (Moderate group) showed better achievement, were more autonomously regulated (intrinsic and identified regulations), and perceived themselves as more competent in this school subject (French), but also showed more controlled regulations (introjected and external) than students who perceived all sources as non-autonomy-supportive (Low group). Students who perceived their father as non-autonomy-supportive did not differ from students in the Moderate group, except on achievement.» (p. 479-480)