Maternal Stressors Impact Maternal Wellbeing and Cortisol, and Infant Growth in Rural Guatemala
Référence bibliographique 
Chomat, Anne Marie. 2016. «Maternal Stressors Impact Maternal Wellbeing and Cortisol, and Infant Growth in Rural Guatemala». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université McGill, Institut de parasitologie; École de l’environnement.
Intentions : Dans cette thèse par articles, seul le dernier article aborde un sujet en lien avec la famille. Plus précisément, «[t]his study aimed to explore personal narratives of Mam-Mayan women living in marginalized, rural communities in the Western Highlands of Guatemala using Photovoice, a photography-based participatory action research method. The objectives were to (1) explore participants’ photographs and photo-elicited narratives to better understand how women perceive, experience and engage their lived environments, particularly with regard to sources of vulnerability and resilience, and (2) use these narratives to validate and contextualize findings from a parallel quantitative study.» (p. 196)
Échantillon/Matériau : To reach his goal «23 women from 7 communities, including four traditional midwives and 10 community health workers, were given a personal camera to photograph things that were important to them over the course of 4 months. Groups of 2-6 women met every 2-4 [week] to discuss photographs, for a total of 6 sessions.» (p. 196)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
«Thematic content analysis of photographs and photo-elicited narratives highlighted 2 scenarios of vulnerability: (1) experiencing domestic violence, low autonomy and socioeconomic dependence, and (2) being a single mother with few employment options and limited rights. Additional sources of stress were poverty, poor social support and the absence of social services. Sources of resilience included family, nature, livestock, traditional knowledge/practices and spirituality. Findings were consistent with those derived from quantitative methodologies. Photovoice emerged as an effective mechanism for women to voice their needs and concerns, while fostering resilience. Women in these communities are marginalized, and require support, yet their very own strength, resourcefulness and resilience are key leverage points for any intervention targeting community health and development.» (p. 196)
Child Marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends, Effects on Health, and Efforts to Limit the Practice
Référence bibliographique 
Koski, Alissa. 2016. «Child Marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends, Effects on Health, and Efforts to Limit the Practice». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université McGill, Département d’épidémiologie, biostatistique et santé au travail.
Intentions : Le but de cette thèse par articles est de «fourni[r] un examen actualisé des tendances en Afrique subsaharienne où les taux de mariage d’enfants sont les plus élevés. Elle vise également à aborder certaines des difficultés inhérentes à l’estimation des effets du mariage d’enfants sur la santé des femmes. [Le premier article] décrit les variations observées de la prévalence du mariage d’enfants dans vingt-neuf pays d’Afrique subsaharienne sur une période de vingt ans. [Le second] clarifie les hypothèses nécessaires pour estimer l’effet du mariage d’enfants sur le risque de violence domestique grâce à l’utilisation de techniques d’appariement. [Le dernier article de cette thèse décrit] l’effet [d]es changements législatifs sur le calendrier des événements reproductifs des filles dans seize pays.» (p. 7-8)
Échantillon/Matériau : Les articles sont basés sur les données des Enquêtes démographiques et de santé (EDS). Depuis le milieu des années 1980, plus de 200 recherches liées à l’EDS portant sur les pays en voie de développement ont été menées avec l’aide de l’Agence des États-Unis pour le développement international (USAID), en collaboration avec les gouvernements des pays faisant l’objet d’enquêtes. L’échantillon du premier article comprenait 156 281 femmes provenant de 29 pays d’Afrique sub-saharienne. Celui du second article provient d’une étude de l’EDS menée au Kenya en 2003 et 2008-2009 auprès de 9348 femmes âgées entre 18 et 49 ans n’ayant jamais été mariées. Les données du dernier article proviennent d’études menées par l’EDS entre 1987 et 2013 dans 16 pays d’Afrique sub-saharienne, de même que plusieurs textes de lois pour chacun de ces pays.
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique Analyse de contenu
The results of the first article show «that the prevalence of child marriage has fallen over time throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa, a result consistent with earlier studies that have concluded age at marriage is rising in the region. However, early declines have not been sustained in a number of countries including Niger, which as the highest prevalence of child marriage in the region. There is no evidence that the prevalence of child marriage has decreased meaningfully over this twenty-year period in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Namibia, Tanzania, or Zimbabwe.» (p. 51) Data used for the second article «indicate that women married before the age of 18 are more likely to experience physical violence at the hands of their husbands or partners relative to women married after their 18th birthday. Domestic violence of any severity can lead to serious health concerns. The excess risk of being threatened or attacked with a potentially deadly weapon is 3% among women married as children. This may be an underestimate as some women attacked in such a violent manner may have been killed and unable to report on their experiences.» (p. 74) Results of the last article show that «the adoption of tuition-elimination policies led to a delay of between 8 and 9 months in the average age at marriage among women in our sample, a 4% increase relative to the sample mean. Estimates of effects on age at sexual debut and first birth were inconclusive: point estimates indicate that eliminating tuition fees may have resulted in delays of between 3 and 4 months in the average age at both events though we could not rule out chance explanations.» (p. 93)
Domestic Violence Reported to the Police: Correlates of Victims’ Reporting Behavior and Support to Legal Proceedings
Référence bibliographique 
Boivin, Rémi et Leclerc, Chloé. 2016. «Domestic Violence Reported to the Police: Correlates of Victims’ Reporting Behavior and Support to Legal Proceedings ». Violence and Victims, vol. 31, no 3, p. 402-415.
Intentions : «Factors affecting victim’s use of the criminal justice system have been the subject of only a few empirical studies and victim decisions have often been analyzed as a “static single-stage phenomenon” […]. A limited number of studies have recognized that victims change their minds about prosecution but have analyzed victim decisions independently […]. This article aims to go a step further by investigating whether two decisions—the decision to call the police and the initial willingness to press charges against the assailant, as expressed to police officers shortly after their intervention—are interdependent.» (p. 405)
Échantillon/Matériau : «The analysis is based on cases of assaults between partners or ex-partners recorded by the police in a large urban city in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2008. Incident reports were obtained for a sample of 967 cases. The narratives from all incident reports were read and codified by a team of researchers.» (p. 406)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«The analysis […] shows that official statistics include a more diverse range of DV [domestic violence] situations and make it possible to quantify them. The most prevalent group […] seem to correspond to victims who use the criminal justice system rationally to resolve a problematic situation […]. However, two other groups of victims were also identified. Group 2 (24.0%) includes incidents that were reported to the police by victims who did not want to press charges. This group is consistent with previous studies that showed that the most common reasons for calling the police is to stop the current incident and suppress an immediate threat […]. Finally, Group 3 […] is the unexpected one: It includes third party—reported incidents after which victims expressed their willingness to press charges.» (p. 410) «[T]he analysis supports the idea that seeking help from the police is a dynamic behavior and involves a more complex decision than is often assumed. Supplementary analyses (not shown) do indicate that victims who called the police themselves were almost 5 times more likely to be willing to press charges against their offenders. […] These findings can be related to current debates on the nature of policies adopted by the criminal justice system.» (p. 410)