Combating Poverty: Quebec’s Pursuit of a Distinctive Welfare State
Référence bibliographique 
Van den Berg, Axel, Plante, Charles, Raïq, Hicham, Proulx, Christine et Faustmann, Samuel. 2017. Combating Poverty: Quebec’s Pursuit of a Distinctive Welfare State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Intentions : «In this book, [w]e assess to what extent Canada’s largest provinces have grown apart in their approaches to [social and employment] policies. We are particularly interested in gauging the extent to which Quebec has diverged from the policy patterns of the other provinces and the federal government, as a result of what some observers call its ‘social democratic turn’ (virage sociodémocratique) during the 1990s.» (p. 3)
Échantillon/Matériau : Données documentaires diverses
Type de traitement des données : Réflexion critique
«We analysed [the] trends [in social and employment policies] and [their] outcomes in the context of a number of issues that have recently been raised about the evolution of advanced welfare states, including Canada’s. Among other things, we asked how far Canada’s largest provinces have drifted apart as a result of Quebec’s virage socioéconomique and the neoliberal retrenchment of the other provinces and the federal government. […] We have been particularly interested in assessing how Quebec and the other major provinces have dealt with recent trends in family composition and labour market behaviour and the extent to which they have adopted the social investment rather than the workfare variant of activation policies.» (p. 164) As a result of the policies, «while in the other provinces, poverty rates of two-parents families have drifted up, they have gone down in Quebec. Single-parent household poverty has declined everywhere, albeit in different patterns, with […] a much later but more sustained decline in Quebec. […] In accordance with Quebec’s strong emphasis on lifting families with children out of poverty, such families have done quite well there compared to other Canadian provinces. But this has happened at the expense of a relative neglect of other family or household types.» (p. 105)
Quebec’s Distinct Welfare State: On Poverty Among Families with Children, Quebec and the Rest of Canada Have Taken Different Paths
Référence bibliographique 
Raiq, Hicham, Bernard, Paul et Van Den Berg, Axel. 2012. «Quebec’s Distinct Welfare State: On Poverty Among Families with Children, Quebec and the Rest of Canada Have Taken Different Paths ». Inroads: A Journal of Opinion, no 31, p. 59-68.
Intentions : «[This study takes] a closer look at the effect of Quebec’s policies to combat poverty among families with children on poverty rates of different family types.» (p. 59)
Questions/Hypothèses : «[H]ow does Quebec stack up against the other Canadian provinces and other countries when it cornes to poverty rates among different types of families?» (p. 60)
Échantillon/Matériau : «We use data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), the current goId standard for international income comparisons, offering more than 200 demographic and income variables from more than 30 countries. The data are presented for five-year intervals starting in 1990 up until the latest year with fully available data (2004-05).» (p. 62)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«The standard poverty rate for single-parent families is an important exception, but even in that respect Quebec’s performance compares reasonably well with the reputedly more generous European conservative welfare states. Note also that Quebec has accomplished all this with a combination of greater generosity in its social programs and an approach intended to facilitate combining market employment and childcare for women with children, a typically social democratic strategy. In other words, with respect to the policies and outcomes we have considered here, Quebec seems to have effectively moved from a typical liberal welfare state to what looks an awful lot like a social democratic one. […] The fact remains that Quebec appears to have come a long way from its erstwhile liberal policy regime. The other provinces in Canada, and possibly even some of the other European countries, could do worse than to investigate exactly how Quebec was able to pull this off.» (p. 67)