Early Warm‐Rewarding Parenting Moderates the Genetic Contributions to Callous–Unemotional Traits in Childhood
Référence bibliographique 
Henry, Jeffrey, Dionne, Ginette, Viding, Essi, Vitaro, Frank, Brendgen, Mara, Tremblay, Richard E. et Boivin, Michel. 2018. «Early Warm‐Rewarding Parenting Moderates the Genetic Contributions to Callous–Unemotional Traits in Childhood ». Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 59, no 12, p. 1282-1288.
Intentions : «The goal of this study was to determine whether early warm/rewarding parenting (63 months) moderates the relative importance of genetic and environmental contributions to childhood CU [callous–unemotional] traits (7, 9, 10, and 12 years).» (p. 1283)
Échantillon/Matériau : «Participants were from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS; Boivin et al., 2013). Over 660 families from the Greater Montreal area were initially enrolled (1995–1998) and followed annually from birth on a host of individual, social, family, and school characteristics.» (p. 1283)
Instruments : Questionnaire
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«Our [analysis] showed that genetic factors accounted for a substantial degree of individual differences in CU traits, but the multivariate genetic modeling indicated that the degree of genetic influence on variation in CU traits was weaker in environments characterized by early warm/rewarding parenting. The high heritability of CU traits is consistent with past twin studies […]. The present study also found a modest negative association between warm/rewarding parenting and CU traits. […] Most importantly, the present study allowed the investigation of gene–environment interplay with respect to the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in accounting for individual differences in CU traits in parenting environments varying in warmth/rewards. The genetic contributions to individual differences in CU traits were lower in environments characterized by higher warm/rewarding parenting, compared with environments characterized by lower warm/rewarding parenting. In addition, the modest phenotypic association between warm/rewarding parenting and CU traits was not accounted for by genes […].» (p. 1285-1286)
Intentions : «[L’]objectif général de la thèse est de documenter, à partir d’un échantillon populationnel de jumeaux, l’étiologie et les précurseurs préscolaires des CI [comportements d’insensibilité] à l’âge scolaire.» (p. 21) Seuls les articles 2 et 3 seront abordés dans cette fiche. L’objectif présenté dans le deuxième article est «d’examiner les associations phénotypiques et étiologiques prospectives entre deux patrons de conduites parentales précoces (c.-à-d., hostilité réactive et chaleur-gratification) et les CI à l’âge scolaire. [L’objectif du troisième article, quant à lui], est de déterminer dans quelle mesure la force des contributions génétiques aux CI d’âge scolaire varie selon les niveaux de chaleur-gratification parentale au cours de l’âge préscolaire […].» (p. 22-23)
Échantillon/Matériau : «The stud[ies] sample was part of an ongoing prospective study of a normative birth cohort of twins from the Great Montreal area (Quebec Newborn Twin Study; QNTS) who were recruited between November 1995 and July 1998 (N = 662 twin pairs; Boivin et al., 2013).» (p. 85) Dans l’article 2, les conduites parentales et les comportements externalisés ont été rapportés par la mère, tandis que les professeurs ont rapporté les comportements d’insensibilité. Dans l’article 3, la mesure de chaleur-gratification a été rapportée par la mère, alors les comportements d’insensibilité étaient à nouveau rapportés par les professeurs.
Instruments : Questionnaires
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
Results from article 2, «indicate that both hostile-reactive parenting and warm/rewarding parenting are prospectively associated with CU [callous-unemotional] traits. However, only warm/rewarding parenting predicted CU traits over and above early externalizing problems. Extensive data from past studies indicate that positive aspects of parenting play a key role in shaping the aspects of conscience that are subject to deficits in CU traits. The present study, highlighting the unique contribution of warm/rewarding parenting to CU traits, supports this notion. Moreover, results from twin modelling suggest that warm/rewarding parenting, mainly relying on parental characteristics, likely contributes to CU traits through an environmental pathway. Inversely, hostile-reactive parenting is not free of child evocation and does not seem to contribute to CU traits through an environmental pathway.» (p. 93-94) For article 3, the «genetic contributions to individual differences in CU traits were found to be lower in environments characterised by higher warm/rewarding parenting, compared with environments characterised by lower warm/rewarding parenting. In addition, the initial modest phenotypic association between warm/rewarding parenting and CU traits was not accounted for by genes, and thus rGE [gene-environment correlation] could not account for this GxE [gene-environment interaction]. All of this points to warm/rewarding parenting as a protective environmental factor that can counter genetic vulnerability to CU traits. This finding is in line with that of a recent adoption study that demonstrated that higher levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months predicted lower levels of CU traits at 27 months in children of biological mothers with history of antisocial behavior, thus indicating that the adoptive mother’s positive reinforcement partly buffered the contribution of genetic risk for CU traits […].» (p. 122)
Gene-Environment Interplay in Parenting Young Children
Référence bibliographique 
Henry, Jeffrey, Boivin, Michel et Tarabulsy, George. 2015. «Gene-Environment Interplay in Parenting Young Children». Dans Gene-Environment Interplay in Interpersonal Relationships across the Lifespan , sous la dir. de Jenae M. Neiderhiser et Horwitz, Briana N., p. 13-55. New York: Springer.
Intentions : «In the past decade, studies using twin, adoption, step-family and linkage (i.e., molecular) designs have provided important new evidence regarding early parenting and the nature of its association with child socio-emotional development. The goal of this chapter is to review this emerging evidence. In this chapter, we first introduce the reader to attachment theory, a dominant figure of the theoretical landscape regarding early parenting. This theoretical framework will serve as a starting point to posit specific empirical questions relating to the developmental role of early parenting in child development. We then provide a review of extant empirical evidence from behavioral-genetics studies on early parenting and infant socio-emotional development, and discuss its significance for our understanding of the developmental role of early parenting.» (p. 15)
Échantillon/Matériau : Données documentaires diverses
Type de traitement des données : Réflexion critique
«As this review shows, behavioral-genetics studies can provide comprehensive understanding of the nature of early parenting and its contribution to infant socioemotional development. By disentangling genetic from environmental variance, important theoretical questions about the developmental role of early parenting and its interaction with child and parental genetic risk may be investigated. […] In the context of the present chapter, we showed that both child and parental genotypes have a unique contribution and interact to predict multiple developmental problems in the child. However, a wide range of adaptive parenting practices are accounted for by parental characteristics and life experiences, whereas child heritable characteristics may account for specific, negative parenting practices in the normative range (but not in the more severe range). Such genetically informed studies may inform the prevention of child developmental problems, as well as early interventions promoting adaptive parent-infant interactions. The actual evidence suggests that interventions promoting sensitive and warm parenting should mainly focus on parental characteristics, perceptions and behaviors, while interventions promoting positive parent-child interactions may center both on child temperamental characteristics (and their purported effects on the caregiving environment) and parent training.» (p. 43)