The Differential Contribution of Maternal and Paternal Values to Social Competence of Preschoolers
Référence bibliographique 
Bigras, Marc et Crepaldi, Maria Aparecida. 2013. «The Differential Contribution of Maternal and Paternal Values to Social Competence of Preschoolers ». Early Child Development and Care, vol. 183, no 6, p. 843-855.
Intentions : «[T]his study contributes to the research literature by explicitly testing the hypothesis of an association between specific parental values and the most common social behaviours expected for preschoolers, as well as the possible moderating effect of the sex of child and parent. In doing so, important conceptual and methodological issues were considered.» (p. 2)
Échantillon/Matériau : «The sample was comprised of 217 two-parent families with a kindergarten child. […] In addition, each child’s kindergarten teacher was asked to provide information about the child’s behaviour at school; 151 teachers agreed to participate. Families and teachers were Francophones from the regions of Montreal and Sherbrooke in Quebec.» (p. 4)
Instruments : Questionnaire
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«In summary, the parents in this sample shared to a large extent values that favor autonomy and self-assertion (IND) for preschoolers, while almost as large a proportion favoured the values of interdependence and sociability (COL), and a lesser proportion favoured compliance with social rules and authority (VER). [A] horizontal (HOR) factor did not emerge from the continuum HOR/VER. However, the devaluation of competition in both the IND and COL groups suggests that these groups are rather HOR in their value orientations. In this sense, the values shared by parents of the IND group could be labelled IND+HOR, where parents valued that children should be equal in the search for the satisfaction of their needs and the affirmation of uniqueness (Triandis & Gelfand, 1998). Similarly, the second factor could be called COL+HOR because values such as the respect for authority or the imposition of collective rules are absent even when parents value children’s ability to relate to others and act cooperatively. It is also interesting to observe that even the group VER devalued competition. We speculate that, in the context of the socialisation of preschoolers, a significant proportion of parents might value respect for rules and adult authority; however, most of the parents devalue the hierarchy among peers.» (p. 10)