Maternal Tactile-Gestural Stimulation and Infants’ Nonverbal Behaviors During Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interactions: Contextual, Age, and Birth Status Effects
Référence bibliographique 
Arnold, Sharon L. 2002. «Maternal Tactile-Gestural Stimulation and Infants’ Nonverbal Behaviors During Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interactions: Contextual, Age, and Birth Status Effects». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.
Intentions : Study 1: « The two general objectives of Study 1 were: (1) to examine contextual and developmental influences on the duration of maternal tactile and gestural stimulation, as well as the qualitative aspects of maternal touch employed during face-to-face interactions with infants aged 3½ to 5½ months, as well as (2) infants’ behavioral responses to these forms of stimulation. » (p. 49) Study 2: « The general objective of this study was to examine whether mothers’ uses of tactile and gestural stimulation differed toward full-term and very low birth weight pre-term (VLBW-PT) infants, and to examine infants’ nonverbal behaviors as indices of engagement and disengagement in response to these forms of stimulation. » (p. 53)
Questions/Hypothèses : Study 1: « It has been hypothesized that the physical proximity established within the face-to-face context permits mothers to more readily detect and react to their infants’ signals of engagement and disengagement. Furthermore, through their behavior in this context, mothers are argued to provide their infants with varying sources and levels of external stimulation, and to facilitate their infants’ attempts at adapting their behaviors toward the end of successful arousal regulation. » (p. 49) Study 2: « It was hypothesized that VLBW-PT infants would smile less than NBW-FT (normal birth weight full-term) infants, reflecting their diminished expression of positive arousal. In addition, VLBW-PT infants were expected to gaze less at their mothers’ faces, to gaze away more, and to fret more that NBW-FT infants, reflecting their increased expression of negative arousal. » (p. 165)
Échantillon/Matériau : Study 1 The final sample constisted of 115 infants, 60 3½ month-olds (30 males, 30 females) and 55 5½ month-olds (28 males, 27 females) and their mothers. Study 2: The sample consisted of 30 infants (15 VLB-PT and 15 NBW-FT) and their mothers.
Instruments : Study 1 and study 2: - Special apparatus to stimulate mother-child interaction - Coding system for video records - CITS (Stack et al., 1998) - Questions regarding general demographic information and infants’ medical history
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« The preverbal period of infancy is characterized by the absence of receptive and expressive verbal communication and substantial reliance on nonverbal forms of communication. Although nonverbal behavior is believed to be particularly salient to infants during early infancy, little is known about the nonverbal strategies that mothers employ when attempting to influence their infants’ behavior or state of arousal, or about infants’ nonverbal behavioral reactions to such stimulation. The two studies comprising this dissertation aimed to examine contextual, developmental, and birth status effects on the expressions of maternal and infant nonverbal behavior. In Study 1, maternal tactile-gestural stimulation and infants’ gaze and affect were assessed during four brief interaction periods. Contextual variations to the interaction were introduced by: (a) providing different instructions to mothers on the behavior/state to elicit from their infants, and (b) varying the method by which mothers attempted to accomplish these goals (uni-modal touch only vs. multi-modal). Two within modality comparisons were conducted to evaluate whether the instructions to mothers to modify their infants’ behavior/state of arousal actually influenced mothers’ tactile-gestural behavior and infants’ gaze and affect. A subsequent comparison between the uni-modal and multi-modal groups was then conducted to specifically examine whether, and in what way, mothers’ and infants’ nonverbal behaviors differed when these identical instructions were attempted in different ways. Within each of these comparisons, developmental differences were assessed by examining infants at 3½ and 5½ months. In addition, patterns of co-occurrence were evaluated to assess for differences in the organization of nonverbal behaviors. The results of Study 1 revealed differences in the amount of maternal touch and gestures, the qualities of maternal touch, infants’ gaze and affect, and the organization of these behaviors as a function of the context of the interaction. Developmental differences in the expression of these behaviors were also noted with age. Older infants gazed away more from their mothers. Furthermore, supporting the transition from proximal to distal forms of communication with age, mothers touched their 3½ month-olds more and gestured toward them less than mothers of 5½ month-olds. Mothers were also found to use different types of touch with their infants and to touch them on different areas of their bodies with age. In Study 2, mothers’ uses of touch and gesture and infants’ gaze and affect were examined in very low birth weight pre-term (VLBW-PT) and normal birth weight full-term (NBW-FT) infants during a brief period of maternal affective disengagement achieved through use of the SF procedure. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results of Study 2 indicated that the infant’s birth status did not appear to contribute to differences in maternal touching or gesturing, but was associated with differences in infants’ affective expressions and some small differences in the organization of nonverbal behaviors. Taken together, the results of these studies underscore the importance of nonverbal behavior in eliciting, directing, and maintaining social interactions from 3½ to 5½ months of age and highlight the considerable breadth and diversity of touch and gesture as a communicative channel in early mother-infant social interactions. » (p. iv)
Changes in Mothers’ Touch and Hand Gestures Influence Infant Behavior During Face-to-Face Interchanges
Référence bibliographique 
Stack, Dale M. et Arnold, Sharon L. 1998. «Changes in Mothers’ Touch and Hand Gestures Influence Infant Behavior During Face-to-Face Interchanges ». Infant Behavior & Development, vol. 21, no 3, p. 451-468.
Intentions : « Thus, the present study was designed to address the question of whether infants are sensitive to changes in maternal non-verbal behavior presented through touch and hand gestures. The objectives were to: (1) examine infants’ responses during several perturbation periods to investigate whether changes in maternal behavior presented through non-verbal channels of communication effect patterns of infant responding, and to evaluate infants’ sensitivity to subtle changes in maternal tactile-gestural behavior; (2) determine whether mothers can successfully obtain specific responses from their infants using only touch and hand gestures, suggesting a functional context for this communicative channel; and (3) assess the relationships between infant expressive behaviors and gaze during these perturbation periods. » (p. 453)
Questions/Hypothèses : « The hypotheses follow from the predictions that mothers are effective in using touch and hand gestures to elicit specific responses from their infants, and that infants are sensitive to subtle changes in maternal touch and gesture. » (p. 454)
Échantillon/Matériau : « The names of potential participants were identified using the birth records from a major University-teaching hospital in the Montreal community. Caregivers of full-term infant who weighed at least 2,750 grams at the time of birth and were born between 38 and 41 weeks geststional age with uncomplicated medical histories were contacted and recruited by telephone.The final sample consisted of 60 infants (mean age=22.7 weeks; SD=7.9 days), and their mothers. The majority of the families who participated were White (80 %), two-parent, intact (98.3 %) and middle-class (88 %). Specifically, the sample included Non-Hispanic white (80 %), Hispanic (8.3 %), Black (African-American; 5 %), Native American (1.6 %), and Asian/Pacific Islander (5%). » (p. 455)
Instruments : Observation non-participante
Type de traitement de données : Analyse statistique
« Sixty mothers and their 5.5-month-olds participated in 4 periods of face-to-face interaction, designed to examine whether changes in maternal touch and hand gestures influence infant behavior. Following a Normal period, infants in the experimental group received three still-face with touch periods during which mothers were provided with specific instructions. Their responses were compared with those of a control group. Differences in infant gaze and affect were revealed. Infants in the experimental group gazed more at their mothers’ faces and less at their hands during the Attention-to-face period, and smiled more during the playful Interaction period relative to infants in the control group. Moreover, associations between infant smiling and vocalizing with gaze at mothers’ faces and hands were found, and co-occurences varied as a function of period. results from this study indicate that: (1) infants are sensitive to changes in maternal touch and hand gesture; (2) when instructed, mothers appear successful in eliciting specific behaviors from their infants using only non-verbal (touch and gesture) channels of communication; (3) there are associations between infant expressive behaviors and gaze at mothers’ faces and hands during these periods. » (p. 451)