The Role of Attachments to Mother, Father, and Peer in Depression Among Male and Female Middle Adolescents
Référence bibliographique 
Kamkar-Parsi, Katayoun. 2002. «The Role of Attachments to Mother, Father, and Peer in Depression Among Male and Female Middle Adolescents». Mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.
Intentions : « The present study explored the role of peer and parental attachement in depression among a normative sample of male and female middle adolescents. » (p. 8) Questions/Hypothèses : « 1) One main hypothesis was that secure attachment to peers would compensate for insecure attachment to parents, especially for girl. 2) We expected adolescents to report more depressed feelings when they were insecurely attached to parents than when securely attached only if they were insecurely attached to their peers, not if securely attached to their peers. 3) We expected adolescent boys and girls insecurely attached to mother, father, and peers to show more feelings of depression than securely attached to only one target. In addition, we expected depressed feelings to decrease as a function of the number of targets to which adolescents were securely attached. 4) We expected attachment insecurity with at least one attachment figure to be more strongly linked to depressive feelings in girl than in boys. 5) we also expected adolescent girls to show more depressive symptomatology than adolescent boys. » (p. 8)
Échantillon/Matériau : 176 (110 females, 66 males) ninth-grade and tenth-grade students (mean age=15) attending Lasalle Catholic Comprehensive High School in Montreal. They were predominantly Caucasian, English-speaking, and from lower middle-class homes. The students were participating in the final year of a three-year longitudinal study.
Instruments : - The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ : Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991); - Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R : Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985); - Social Desirability Scale (Strahan & Gerbasi, 1972); - Computer Vignette Task of 30 minutes. Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« While both parent and peer attachment security have been found to be related to adolescent’s well-being, the relative importance of each on the adolescent’s adjustment is in question. Further, insecure attachment appears to be a more important factor in depression for adolescent girls than boys (Kobak, Sudler, & Gamble, 1991). The present study investigates the role of parental and peer attachments in depression among adolescent boys and girls, and whether secure attachment to peers protects adolescents insecurely attached to parents, particularly girls, against depression. Adolescents (n = 176) completed self-reports measuring their depressed feelings and their attachment to mother, father, and best friend, and a computer task consisting of hypothetical situations in which they were asked how they would feel. The results suggested that attachment security to a close peer only protected girls insecurely attached to their father against depression. Attachment security to both parents appeared to protect adolescents against depression. These findings substantiate the importance of attachment security to parents in adolescence and the need to examine gender differences and the separate effects of both mother and father when studying the importance of security to parents and to peers on the adolescent’s mental health. » (p. iii)