Parenting Practices and Psychological Distress in Adolescents
Référence bibliographique 
Luckow, Debra. 2002. «Parenting Practices and Psychological Distress in Adolescents». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université de Montréal, Département de psychologie.
Intentions : « This study explores particular aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. The general purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between behavioral and emotional factors of parental practices and psychological distress among adolescents. [...] This research had two main goals: first, to develop a theoretically sound directional model to help explain the impact of parenting practices on psychological distress; second, to test the theoretical model against empirical data gathered from adolescents. The ultimate purpose of this research was to expand the understanding of the contribution of parental factors in adolescent psychological distress such that it would be useful in the development of prevention and intervention techniques for families coping with psychological distress adolescents. » (p. 1) Questions/Hypothèses : « It is hypothesized that : 1) parents who are rated as giving a low amount of supervision will have adolescents who report being more psychologically distressed. 2) parents who imposed few limits will have adolescents who rate higher on measures of psychological distress. 3) adolescents with parents who adopt an authoritarian or physically punitive approach will be more psychologically distressed than those who are more communicative with their children. 4) adolescents with a closer relationship to their parents will be less psychologically distressed. 5) a closer relationship with the parents will have an effect on disciplinairy practices. Specifically, parents who are closer to their children are hypothesized to be rated as imposing more limits, supervising more closely, and adopting less severe forms of punishment, given their greater involvement in their adolescent’s life. 6) adolescents who have a closer relationship to their parents will be less psychologically distressed. 7) adolescents who experience more conflict with their parents will be more distressed. 8) adolescents experiencing greater levels of conflict with their parents will have a more difficult relation expressed through higher measures of punishment and less supervision. 9) girls will have more supervision and limits imposed on them than boys. 10) female adolescents will score higher on measures of psychological distress than will male adolescents. 11) adolescents from homes in which there has been a separation of divorce will have a less structured family environment, reflected in fewer limits and less supervision. 12) adolescents from homes in which there has been a separation or divorce will score higher on measures of psychological distress. 13) parents born outside of Canada will be stricter in their practices towards their adolescents- that they will imposed more limits, supervise more closely and be more severe in their punishments. » (pp. 38-40)
Échantillon/Matériau : The sample was composed of 334 subjects, 141 girls and 192 boys (and 1 that did not indicate the gender). Subjects were recruited from three Montreal-area French language high schools (Curé-Labelle, Brébeuf, Monseigneur Richard). Subjects were in secondary 5 and the average age was 17 years, 1 month.
Instruments : - Canadian socio-professionnal scale (Blishen, Carrol & Moore, 1987); - A questionnaire based on Parker’s (1990) Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the levels of closeness; - Issue Checklist by Prinz et al. (1979); - A questionnaire based on the works of Dishion & McMahon (1998) to measure parental supervision; - Set of questions related to parental limit-setting (Claes, 1996); - Questionnaire based on the scale developed by Papps et al. (1995) to evaluate parents’ reactions in a variety of situations; - Questionnaire of psychological distress (Préville, Boyer, Potvin, Perrault & Légaré, 1992). Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Les recherches indiquent que les parents jouent un rôle de première importance dans le développement psychologique de leur adolescent. Cette étude examine la présence de liens entre les pratiques parentales et la détresse psychologique chez l’adolescent. Les pratiques parentales sont définies en terme de mesures disciplinaires, de proximité affective et de conflits. Les mesures disciplinaires sont divisées en trois composantes soit, les limites permises, la supervision et les conséquences faisant suite à un comportement non acceptable. Des hypothèses fondées sur des variables telles que la démographie et la détresse psychologique parentale sont incluses dans le modèle. Les données ont été recueillies à partir des résultats de questionnnaires administrés à un groupe de 334 étudiants francophones de 5e secondaire. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide d’un modèle d’équation structurale, et ce, tant pour le groupe en entier que pour les filles et les garçons séparément. Les conflits parentaux sont relevés comme étant le prédicteur le plus significatif de la détresse psychologique tant chez les filles que chez les garçons. On remarque que l’absence de proximité avec le père est le second indicateur menant à la détresse psychologique chez les filles. Les variables démographiques ainsi que la structure familiale influencent le type de pratiques disciplinaires n’a pu être lié [sic] comme menant à la détresse psychologique. Les résultats de cette recherche suggèrent que les liens affectifs entre l’adolescent et ses parents ont une plus grande importance que les pratiques disciplinaires, dans la prédictibilité de la détresse psychologique chez l’adolescent. Cette étude propose quelques pistes pouvant guider les interventions familiales dans le cas de détresse psychologique chez l’adolescent. » (p. iii)
Adolescents’ Relationships with Members of the Extended Family and Non-Related Adults in Four Countries: Canada, France, Belgium and Italy.
Référence bibliographique 
Claes, Michel, Lacourse, Eric, Bouchard, Celine et Luckow, Debra. 2001. «Adolescents’ Relationships with Members of the Extended Family and Non-Related Adults in Four Countries: Canada, France, Belgium and Italy. ». International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, vol. 9, no 2-3, p. 207-225.
Intentions : « The main goal of the present study was to examine relationships that adolescents have with members of the extended family and non-related adults in four different countries: Canada, France, Belgium and Italy. » (p. 209)
Questions/Hypothèses : « 1. It was expected that Italian adolescents would distinguish themselves from those from the other countries; they would name more significant people in their extended family and the contacts with these people would be greater. This hypothesis was based on a vast body of literature that highlights the importance of the family and of family values within Italian culture (e.g. McGoldrick, 1982; Spiegel, 1982). Sgritta (1988) has described the evolution of the Italian family over the past 30 years, and has found that despite structural changes that continue to mark the evolution of the country, there remains strong ties of solidarity within the Italian family. 2. It was expected that girls would indicate a greater number of significant people in their social environment. This hypothesis was based on the empirical works of Biyth (1982), who found this variation between the sexes, as well as Gilligan (1982) who has noted the importance of interpersonal relationships within the social world of adolescent girls. 3. It was expected that older adolescents would rate a smaller number of adults as significant. A decreasing number of important adults has been associated with increasing age, according to several authors (Biyth, 1982; Claes, 1998; Scales and Gibbons, 1996). 4. It was expected that adolescents from small cities would identify more significant people in their social network and that the contacts with these people would be greater than for adolescents living in the large cities. This hypothesis was based on Bo’s work (1989), which compared Norwegian adolescents’ social networks from two regions: a large, industrial city and a small, quiet, traditional fjord village. Bo found that the size of the social networks and the frequency of contacts were greater in the traditional community. » (pp. 209-210)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Subjects came from four different countries: 240 subjetcs from Canada, 116 from France, 118 from Belgium, and 119 from Italy; a total of 593 subjects » (p. 210)
Instruments : « Information concerning the social network was gathered using a one-hour, validated, semi-structured interview (Claes & Poirier, 1991). » (p. 211)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
« This study examines the relationships that adolescents from Canada (province of Quebec), France, Belgium, and Italy have with members of their extended family and non-related adults in their social milieu. The sample of 593 subjects was composed of boys and girls from three age groups, ranging from 11 to 18 years. In each country, subjects came from a large city (Montreal, Brussels and Rome) or from a small city of less than 30,000 inhabitants. Three types of information were gathered: the number of people identified as significant, the frequency of contacts with these people, and their principal roles and functions. In the four countries, adolescents identified a number of people whom they considered to be significant within their extended family. The roles played by these people were mainly within the emotional realm. Adolescents identified few significant non-related adults. These adults came mainly from outside of school, and acted primarily as mentors. In the European countries, particularly in Italy, contacts with members of the extended family were frequent, almost weekly. Intergenerational relationships were structured differently in Europe than in Canada, where they were closer and contacts were more frequent. » (p. 207)