The Invention of the Margin as an Invention of the Family : The Case of the Rural Quebec in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Référence bibliographique 
Hubert, Ollivier. 2004. «The Invention of the Margin as an Invention of the Family : The Case of the Rural Quebec in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries». Dans Mapping the Margins : The Family and Social Discipline in Canada, 1700-1975 , sous la dir. de Michael Gauvreau et Christie, Nancy, p. 183-208. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Intentions : Demonstrate that the concept of « traditional family » is a construction by analysing the norms power relations at the basis of this conception, as well as explaining different forms of marginality: « It seems useful to turn the historical focus away from family itself and toward whatever authority permitted this particular mode of social organization [nuclear family composed of a father, a mother and their biological children living under the same roof] to be established as the norm. » (p. 184)
Questions/Hypothèses : « We can thus hypothesize that the longevity of the nuclear, devised ’traditional family’ resides in the very historicity of the cultural affirmation of that family (which are implicit in social codes, beliefs, and rituals and in clerical, bourgeois, official, an ’ scientific’ discourse) and in the success with which these adapted to constantly changing conditions. » (p. 185)
Échantillon/Matériau : The analysis uses a « a highly regarded novel of the second half of the nineteenth century » (p. 186) from Antoine Gérin-Lajoie : « Jean Rivard le défricheur : Récit de la vie réelle ».
Type de traitement des données : Réflexion critique
« I will analyze two ’systems’ through which the family margin is established. The first […] is the ’community system’ of marginal construction, in order to identify the range of powers that it brings to bear. […] I also endeavor to demonstrate that marginality, and thus the family, has been constructed using an apparatus intended to establish the idea of sexual activity absolutely confined to heterosexual relations between two married individuals. […] The second system we might term ideological or discursive. It involves typical, ideal representation fashioned by socio-cultural elites which have the purpose of privileging the nuclear family, of actualizing it, and of not only making it the single legitimate mode of social organization but also reaffirming its cultural, moral, and political value in the context of rising tide of capitalist society. » (p. 185)
Ritual Performance and Parish Sociability: French-Canadian Catholic Families at Mass from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century
Référence bibliographique 
Hubert, Ollivier. 2002. «Ritual Performance and Parish Sociability: French-Canadian Catholic Families at Mass from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century». Dans Households of Faith: Family, Gender and Community in Canada, 1760-1969 , sous la dir. de Nancy Christie, p. 37-76. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Intentions : « This essay has attempted to demonstrate the usefulness of an approach that centres upon ritual as performance. By examining social practice through a grille provided by texts and representations which privileges neither the views of clerical elites nor those of popular culture, it has sought to offer a multi-layered understanding of ritual events. » (p. 63)
Questions/Hypothèses : « This article proceeds from a more nuanced assumption that ritual always possesses a plurality of meanings. In the micro-societies examined here - namely, the rural French-speaking Catholic parishes that were establish between the seventeenth and the nineteenth century, in a temporal context sufficiently long after the enactment of the Council of Trent’s reforms to lend credence to Bossy’s contentions - I see little evidence to support the hypothesis of an ’individualist’ ritual culture. » (p. 38)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
« The evidence presented in this paper suggests that this was not the dominant function of Catholic ritual in colonial Quebec. Many other social practices were at work in the parish ritual, especially a game of positioning, the elaboration of hierarchy, and the search for status both within the family and outside it. Seen in this light, Bossy’s view that a radical individualization occured in ritual practice as the immediate consequence of Councils of Trent is difficult to accept. Although in the practices decreed by and the representations diffused by the council, there certainly were an intent to interiorize belief, it must be recognized that these practices, either through ritual or teaching, always relied upon the family as the primary medium. [...] [I]n rural Quebec the full force of this change in ritual practice appeared very late, only in the second half of the nineteenth century. It thus became one of the central pillars of a privatized society that increasingly sealed the nuclear family off from the public gaze and ensured that, within its precincts, the rules of morality could be violated through public ignorance and the complicity of church and state. » (p. 64)