Childhood Hyperactivity-Inattention Symptoms and Smoking in Adolescence
Référence bibliographique 
Galera, Cédric, Fombonne, Eric, Chastang, Jean-François et Bouvard, Manuel. 2005. «Childhood Hyperactivity-Inattention Symptoms and Smoking in Adolescence ». Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 78, no 1, p. 101-108.
Intentions : « In this longitudinal community study, we examined in both genders the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and later adolescent smoking controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, temperament and environmental risk factors. » (p. 102)
Question/Hypothèses : « We hypothesized that ADHD [attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) symptoms in childhood would be an independent risk factor for subsequent smoking and that other factors, particularly CD symptoms, would independently also contribute to the prediction of adolescent smoking. » (p. 102)
Échantillon/Matériau : 2582 participants
Instruments : - Version française du Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991); - « Parental data were obtained through medical services of EDF-GDF and INSERM research unit managing the GAZEL cohort […] » (p. 103); - Youth questionnaire; - Parental questionnaire.
Types de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in childhood did not predict lifetime smoking in bivariate relationships or after controlling for other variables. Furthermore, this applied to both males and females. Tobacco experimentation can be regarded as a normative experience rather than a deviant behavior. Thus, any association between hyperactivity-inattention and smoking is likely to have been diluted in analyses taking into account the broad definition of smoking, and those results were correspondingly biased toward the null hypothesis. A different picture emerged when a more stringent definition of smoking was employed. Consistent with previous research and with our original hypotheses, childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptomatology predicted daily smoking in bivariate relationships. Interestingly enough, the patterns of results differed according to gender when multivariate modelling of the data was performed. Contrary to our expectation, hyperactivity-inattention symptoms did not contribute to risk of daily smoking in males, after controlling for the effects of CD symptoms, activity and parental smoking. Those results support other published findings which indicate that ADHD does not predict independently subsequent nicotine dependence and that other factors account for the link between ADHD and smoking (Boyle et al., 1992; Lynskey and Fergusson, 1995). By contrast, childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in females significantly increased the risk for daily smoking 8 years later. This gender difference is consistent with another population-based study conducted by Disney et al. (1999). This result is important for at least two reasons: first, the rates of smoking among females have consistently increased during the last decade (Baudier et al., 2000); second, ADHD amongst females leads to fewer externalising problems and consequently tends to be under diagnosed. » (p. 106)
Measuring the Parental, Service and Cost Impacts of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
Référence bibliographique 
Jarbrink, Krister, Fombonne, Eric et Knapp, Martin. 2003. «Measuring the Parental, Service and Cost Impacts of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study ». Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 33, no 4, p. 395-402.
Intentions : « The aim of this study was to carry out a preliminary examination of a research instrument developed specifically to collect cost information for individuals with autistic spectrum disorder. » (p. 395)
Échantillon/Matériau : « In order to pilot the schedule, a small sample of respondents was recruited from Greater London, Surrey and Sussex with the help of PACE (Parents’ Autism Campaign for Education), a parental organisation. Twenty parents known to PACE were sent letters […] inviting them to join the study. » (p. 396) « Sixteen parents responded to our invitation to participate in this pilot exercise and returned the consent form. It was not possible to arrange a meeting with one of the parents, and so 15 were included in the study. Information was collected for 17 children as two families had more than one child with autistic spectrum disorder. » (p. 397)
Instruments : « A questionnaire was developed from the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) […]. The purpose of the CSRI is to collect detailed information on the client’s service use and family support in order to estimate component and total costs. » (p. 396)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« The development of resource-intensive behavioural therapies for children with autistic spectrum disorder has focused attention on the need to understand the costs of supporting people with autism and also on the need for studies of the cost-effectiveness of different interventions. » (p. 395) « There is very little cost information on children or adults with autism or autism-related disorder, and no study appears to have carried out a specific cost collection in this area. Although some global cost estimates can be made, little is known about the cost implications of parental burden. By using different techniques to collect indirect costs, the study outlines a functional methodology. Results from this small pilot study point to considerable economic burden for parents and give some indication of the associated costs of autistic spectrum disorder. » (p. 395)