Explaining Variation in the Premorbid Adjustment of Schizophrenia Patients: The Role of Season of Birth and Family History
Référence bibliographique 
St-Hilaire, Annie, Holowka, Darren W., Cunningham, Helen, Champagne, Frances, Pukall, Monica et King, Suzanne. 2005. «Explaining Variation in the Premorbid Adjustment of Schizophrenia Patients: The Role of Season of Birth and Family History ». Schizophrenia Research, vol. 73, no 1, p. 39-48.
Intentions : « The main purpose of this study was to determine whether winter-born and non-winter-born schizophrenia patients differ in terms of PMA [birth and premorbid adjustment] and to examine how family history of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders may influence the association. » (p. 39)
Questions/Hypothèses : « Specifically, we wished to determine whether winter-born and non-winter born schizophrenia patients differ in terms of PMA dimensions and to examine how family history may influence these associations. We hypothesized that winter-born and family history negative patients would have better PMA and that season of birth and family history would interact to explain variance in PMA, such that the worst PMA would be found in patients with a positive family history of schizophrenia spectrum-disorders born in non-wintermonths. » (p. 41)
Échantillon/Matériau : 37 schizophrenia patients (26 males and 11 females) and their mothers
Instruments : - « Data on four PMA dimensions (attention, internalizing, externalizing and social problems) and family history » (p. 39) - « The Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS, Maxwell, 1992) is a structured diagnostic instrument for establishing probable psychiatric diagnoses (depression, mania, schizophrenia, several personality disorders and alcohol/substance abuse) in relatives. Each mother, the family’s primary historical informant, identified all first-, second- and third degree relatives of the patient. She was then asked screening questions concerning these relatives, and then completed a face sheet and all relevant diagnostic checklists with the interviewer for each potentially diagnosable relative. » (p. 41) - « The Retrospective Child Behavior Checklist (RCBCL, Neumann et al., 1995), comprised of 124 items describing problem behaviors, was completed with the mother to assess PMA. The questionnaire assesses eight syndrome subscales: withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquency and aggression. » (pp. 41-42)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Several studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are more likely to be born in the winter and early spring than at any other time of the year. Furthermore, some studies have reported that winter-born patients differ from non-winter-born patients in terms of risk factors, symptoms, sensory abnormalities and brain morphology. Associations between season of birth and premorbid adjustment (PMA), however, are still unclear. Results: Non-winter-birth and a positive family history of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were associated with worse PMA. Results suggest that, although no significant interaction was found, season of birth and family history appear to work together in explaining distinct dimensions of PMA. » (p. 39)
Childhood Abuse and Dissociative Symptoms in Adult Schizophrenia
Référence bibliographique 
Holowka, Darren W., King, Suzanne, Saheb, Dominique, Pukall, Monica et Brunet, Alain. 2003. «Childhood Abuse and Dissociative Symptoms in Adult Schizophrenia ». Schizophrenia Research, vol. 60, no 1, p. 87-90.
Intentions : « The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and/or neglect and dissociative symptomatology in adult schizophrenia patients, taking into account a wider range of traumatic experiences than had been previously assessed. » (p. 88)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Subjects were 26 schizophrenia outpatients from psychiatric clinics in Montreal, Canada, between the ages of 19 and 48 (mean age: 30.8 years, S.D. = 8.1). » (p. 88)
Instruments : - The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein and Putnam, 1986); - The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Dissociative symptoms, occurring in many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, are often preceded by traumatic experience.We hypothesized that various types of childhood trauma would correlate with levels of dissociative symptomatology in adult patients. Twenty-six patients completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Dissociation was significantly correlated with emotional abuse (r = 0.84, one-tailed p < 0.001), and physical abuse (r = 0.55, p < 0.01). We suggest that emotional abuse may play an important role in the etiology of dissociation in schizophrenia. » (p. 87)