Personality, Coping, Risky Behavior, and Mental Disorders in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Comprehensive Psychosocial Assessment
Référence bibliographique 
Nijjar, Rami, Ellenbogen, Mark A. et Hodgins, Sheilagh. 2014. «Personality, Coping, Risky Behavior, and Mental Disorders in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Comprehensive Psychosocial Assessment ». Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 166, p. 315-323.
Intentions : «The objectives of the current investigation were two fold: (1) to examine differences in personality traits, coping style, and risk-taking behavior (smoking, anti-social behaviors, high risk sexual behaviors, self-injury, and suicidality) between the OBD [offspring of parents with bipolar disorder] and controls, and (2) to compare these psychosocial profiles in offspring who have developed an affective disorder with those who have not, so as to tease apart prodromal markers from those that are present by virtue of having an affective disorder.» (p. 316)
Questions/Hypothèses : «It is hypothesized that the OBD will report higher ratings of neuroticism and lower ratings of extra- version, more frequent use of maladaptive coping, and more risky behavior than control offspring, and that these differences will be present irrespective of having developed an affective disorder.» (p. 316)
Échantillon/Matériau : L’étude est basée sur la participation de la progéniture (148 personnes) de 91 familles. En tout, 77 personnes venaient d’une famille dont au moins un des parents a reçu un diagnostic de bipolarité. Les participants avec un parent atteint de bipolarité ont été recrutés par l’entremise d’une clinique psychiatrique de Montréal.
Instruments : Questionnaire
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«With regards to psychosocial factors, the central finding was that the OBD were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) than control offspring. Risky sexual behavior may represent a particularly important psychosocial marker of risk among the OBD because it was found independent of having an affective disorder. The OBD also reported less task-focused coping and more distraction-focused coping than controls. Female OBD were more likely to endorse the use of emotion-focused coping than high-risk males and controls. All the above findings, except for high-risk sexual behavior, could be attributed in part to the fact that the OBD have higher rates of affective disorder than the controls. Surprisingly, OBD did not differ from controls on measures of personality. As hypothesized, the OBD were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, as indexed by initiating sexual activity before the age of 16, having had at an abortion, or engaging in unprotected sex. In general, adolescent SRBs are thought to be related to deficits in core competencies including positive sense of self (self-efficacy; self-esteem), self-regulatory capacities, decision- making skills, and prosocial connectedness […].» (p. 320)
Daytime Cortisol and Stress Reactivity in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder
Référence bibliographique 
Ellenbogen, Mark A., Hodgins, Sheilagh, Walker, Claire-Dominique, Couture, Sophie et Adam, Sebastien. 2006. «Daytime Cortisol and Stress Reactivity in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder ». Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 31, no 10, p. 1164-1180.
Intentions : « In a pilot study of 20 adolescents, the offspring of parents with BD [bipolar disorder] had higher daytime levels of salivary cortisol than offspring of parents having no mental disorder (NMD, Ellenbogen et al., 2004). The small sample size precludes any definitive conclusions. The present study was undertaken to replicate these results in a larger sample of adolescents and young adults. [...] The second objective of this study was to compare the cortisol response of the offspring of parents with BD and the offspring of parents with NMD to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a validated laboratory-based psychosocial stressor (Kirschbaum and Hellhammer, 1994; Kirschbaum et al., 1995; Buske-Kirschbaum et al., 1997). » (p. 1165) « The third objective was to compare groups on current symptoms and other psychosocial measures, and to determine whether these factors were associated with cortisol levels, as reported in other studies (Pruessner et al., 1999; Pajer et al., 2001). It was hypothesized that the offspring of parents with BD would have more symptoms and lower mood than low-risk offspring, and that these measures would be positively correlated with basal and stress-induced cortisol levels. » (p. 1166)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Twenty-nine (14 male/15 female) offspring of parents with BD, hereafter referred to as ‘highrisk’, and 29 (14 male/15 female) offspring of parents with NMD, hereafter referred to as ‘lowrisk’, were randomly selected from a subject pool of 137 13- to 21-year-old offspring taking part in a longitudinal study (Ellenbogen and Hodgins, 2004). » (p. 1166) Instruments : « Participants completed the Child Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1985), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for children (Chorpita et al., 1997; Gosselin et al., 2002), the self-report version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Achenbach, 1991), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson et al., 1988), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965), and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control-Short Form (Nowicki and Strickland, 1973), and the High School Students’ Recent Life Experiences Questionnaire (daily hassles, Kohn and Milrose, 1993). Parents completed the parent version of the CBCL, the Psychiatric Epidemiological Research Interview-Life Event Scale (PERI-LES, Dohrenwend et al., 1978), and the Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Kanner et al., 1981). » (p. 1167) -Échantillon de salive Types de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« The present study examined salivary cortisol levels in the natural environment, sampled at different times of day and across different days, and the cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor in the adolescent offspring of parents with BD and offspring of parents with NMD. There were three main findings. First, high-risk offspring displayed higher daytime levels of salivary cortisol in their natural environment than low-risk offspring. [...] The second finding was that the cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction did not differ between the offspring of parents with BD and offspring of parents with NMD. [...] The third key finding was that female adolescents had higher daytime levels of cortisol, including a more pronounced rise after awakening, in their natural environment than male adolescents. » (p. 1174)