Gatti, Uberto, Tremblay, Richard E. et Schadee, Hans. 2007. «Civic Community and Violent Behavior in Italy ». Aggressive Behavior, vol. 33, no 1, p. 56-62.
Intentions : « The aim of our study was to examine the distribution of homicide and robbery among the 95 Italian provinces and to evaluate the impact of one particular feature of the community, civicness, on these serious forms of violent crime behavior, while controlling for important socioeconomic variables. » (p. 57)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Italy is divided into 20 administrative Regions, which are subdivided into 95 provinces. For each of the provinces we considered two variables which are taken to be indicators of aggressive behavior. These are: (1) the total number of homicides reported per 100,000 inhabitants; (2) the total number of robberies per 100,000 inhabitants. For the two variables, we used an average of the figures for the years 1992–1995. The data were obtained from judiciary statistics, as published by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT). » (p. 57)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« The predictive patterns were somewhat different for homicide and robbery, but in each case civicness interacted with territorial variables. In the case of homicide, civicness had a preventive impact only in the southern provinces. For robbery, the protective impact was limited to provinces which were urbanized and had large metropolitan areas. These results indicate that civicness has a protective impact only in areas where each of the two types of crimes are most frequent. Homicide is more frequent in the southern provinces while robbery is more frequent in large cities and in highly urbanized areas. In territories where there is a high risk of homicide or robbery, high-level civicness appears to reduce the risk. Different mechanisms could explain this phenomenon. [...] The association between unemployment and violent crimes observed among the Italian provinces confirms many previous studies which found a criminogenic effect of unemployment [...], poverty [...], and inequality [...]. Results concerning the association between violent crimes and the rate of family break up among the provinces also confirm previous studies. [...] We used a measure of the state of community life in the Italian provinces to predict rates of homicide and burglary. Our multiple regression models predicted a large part of the variance among the provinces for both types of violent crimes. [...] Our results indicate that both the integrity of the family and the quality and quantity of community social relationships are important to prevent violent crimes. They suggest that individual violent tendencies can be counterbalanced by the quality of the social relationships in a community. » (p. 61)