Interpersonal Functioning in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Developmental Antecedents and Relationship to Cortisol Levels
Référence bibliographique 
Ostiguy, Caroline. 2011. «Interpersonal Functioning in the Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Developmental Antecedents and Relationship to Cortisol Levels». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.
Intentions : «The goal of this dissertation was to examine longitudinal predictors and biological correlates of interpersonal functioning in the OBD [offspring of parents with bipolar disorder]. Interpersonal functioning is an important concept in developmental psychopathology, and it has been found to predict the development of affective disorders (e.g, Eberhart & Hammen, 2006). In the first study, I examined the impact of parents’ neuroticism on behavioural problems during childhood and interpersonal functioning in late adolescence/early adulthood.» (p. 26)
Questions/Hypothèses : «The present study tested three hypotheses. First, based on our previous findings (Ellenbogen & Hodgins, 2004), we hypothesized that high neuroticism in parents, assessed when offspring were children, would predict interpersonal dysfunction in the offspring in late adolescence-early adulthood. [...] Second, we hypothesized that the association between parents’ neuroticism and offspring interpersonal functioning would be partly mediated by offspring internalizing and externalizing problems in middle childhood. [...] Third, [...] we hypothesized that the association between parents’ neuroticism and offspring’s functioning in late adolescence-early adulthood would be stronger among the OBD than the OFH-[offspring without a family history of bipolar disorder].» (p. 32)
Échantillon/Matériau : «The sample included 62 male and 62 female offspring, from 78 families, who were participating in an ongoing prospective study of families with a parent diagnosed with BD or parents with no mental disorder.[...] In the present follow-up study, the offspring ranged in age from 15 to 27 years (M =19.81; SD = 3.01; see Table 1). Sixty-five offspring, from 44 families, had a parent with BD, and 59 offspring, from 34 families, had parents with no mental disorder.» (p. 34-35)
Instruments : Questionnaires
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«First, the hypothesis that parents’ neuroticism would predict interpersonal functioning in offspring was supported, even after controlling for the offspring’s age, gender, and current disorders. [...] Our second hypothesis was that the association between parents’ neuroticism and interpersonal functioning in offspring would be mediated in part by offspring’s childhood internalizing and externalizing problems. While the hypothesis was supported, the mediation through childhood internalizing problems was modest while that of externalizing problems was stronger. [...] Our third hypothesis, that parents’ neuroticism would be more strongly associated with interpersonal functioning among the OBD than the OFH-, and that the mediation of offspring childhood problems would be stronger in high-risk than low-risk families, was partially supported. Despite the small sample size, the diagnosis of BD in parents moderated the association between parents’ neuroticism and childhood internalizing problems among offspring, but not the association between childhood internalizing problems and interpersonal functioning a decade later. [...] In sum, the results suggest a pattern of relative continuity across generations in families having a parent with BD, but not in non-affected families, defined by a trajectory of high emotionality in parents, offspring internalizing problems in childhood, and interpersonal dysfunction in late adolescence and early adulthood.» (p. 48-49)
Intentions : « The goal of the present study was to assess the mean level and type of stress experienced by the offspring of parents with BD [bipolar disorder] and the offspring of parents with no mental disorder (NMD). The results of this study could inform us about the vulnerability factors associated with the onset of BD and the intergenerational transmission of these factors. In addition, successfully identifying which types of stress are prominent in high risk populations is one step towards targeted preventive interventions. » (p. 9-10)
Questions/Hypothèses: « First, it was hypothesized that chronic functioning would be worse in the OBD [offspring of parents with bipolar disorder] than in the offspring of parents with no disorder. Second, it was hypothesized that OBD, compared to control participants, would experience a greater number of, and more severe, episodic stressors that are interpersonal in nature and dependent on their behaviour. Finally, it was hypothesized that girls, independent of their group, would experience more interpersonal SLEs [stressful life events] than boys. » (p. 10)
Échantillon/Matériau : L’échantillon comprend 37 participants ayant un parent présentant un trouble bipolaire et 33 participants dont les parents ne présentent pas de troubles mentaux.
Instruments: Grille d’entrevue semi-dirigée
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« The stress generation theory suggests that depressed individuals and children of depressed mothers are prone to create stressors that are interpersonal and dependent on their behaviour. Exposure to this ’self-generated’ stress is believed to increase the risk for onset and recurrence of depression. Much less is known about stress in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD). [...] Participants [in this study] were asked about their current life circumstances (chronic stress) and negative events that occurred in the last year (episodic stress). The OBD reported more difficulties in both the interpersonal and non-interpersonal domains of chronic functioning than the offspring of parents with no mental disorder. The group differences in chronic functioning remained significant after controlling for the presence of affective disorders, indicating that the effect of risk status on chronic stress is independent of the problems associated with having a disorder. With respect to episodic stress, the OBD were almost 4 times more likely to have experienced an interpersonal stressful event of moderate to severe impact compared to the controls. There was no group difference between dependent and independent life events. Although the findings do not support the stress generation theory in the OBD, they suggest that elevated levels of episodic and chronic stress may be important premorbid markers of risk in high risk participants in adolescence and early adulthood. » (p. iii)