Intentions : The author’s objectives are fourfold: « 1. To compare the incidence and prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI among infants born to mothers of different HIV status: HIV-P, HIV-N and HIV-U. » (p. 3) « 2. To investigate the association between maternal postpartum depression and infant morbidity. » (p. 3) « 3. To investigate the interactions between maternal HIV, perceived stress and postpartum depression on infant morbidity. » (p. 3) « 4. To examine the determinants of infant diarrhoea and ARI morbidity. » (p. 4)
Questions/Hypothèses: « Hypothesis: Infants born to HIV-P mothers would have higher morbidity outcomes than infants born to HIV-N and HIV-U mothers. » (p. 3) « Hypothesis: Infants whose mothers show symptoms of postpartum depression would have more morbidity outcomes compared to infants whose mothers show no symptom of postpartum depression. » (p. 3) « Hypotheses: a) There is a synergistic relationship between maternal HIV infection and postpartum depression on infant morbidity. b) Maternal perceived stress modifies the relationship between maternal HIV infection and infant morbidity. » (p. 3-4)
Échantillon/Matériau : Cette étude s’insère dans le cadre du projet RIING (Research to Improve Infant Nutrition and Growth) mené au Ghana de 2003 à 2008. L’échantillon comprend des femmes enceintes qui sont porteuses du VIH, qui ne sont pas porteuses du VIH ou qui n’ont pas été testées pour le VIH. Leurs enfants sont suivis sur une période de 12 mois.
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Incidence, prevalence and determinants of infant diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) were examined in 292 infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women in the Eastern region, Ghana. Incidence of diarrhoea and ARI was 1.0 and 1.2 episodes per child per 100-days at risk, respectively. There was no difference in morbidity by infant feeding mode or maternal HIV status. HIV-P women were more likely to be stressed and to report symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD). Maternal stress and PPD were associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhoea. Among HIV-P women only, the risk of infant diarrhea increased 3-fold with PPD and 15% for every unit increase of the maternal stress score. Poor maternal nutritional status and illiteracy, and infant male sex were associated with increased risk of diarrhoea and ARI. Maternal stress and postpartum depression should be taken into account when drafting policies and planning interventions to improve infant health, especially in HIV-affected communities. » (p. ii) This thesis consists of two manuscripts.