Low Income/Socio-Economic Status in Early Childhood and Physical Health in Later Childhood/Adolescence: A Systematic Review
Référence bibliographique 
Spencer, Nick, Thanh, Tu Mai et Séguin, Louise. 2013. «Low Income/Socio-Economic Status in Early Childhood and Physical Health in Later Childhood/Adolescence: A Systematic Review ». Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 17, no 3, p. 424-431.
Intentions : «We undertook a systematic review of the literature on the association of early childhood low income/SES and physical health in later childhood/adolescence. […] The review seeks to identify the extent to which current literature addresses the following research questions and inform a future research agenda aimed at providing evidence for effective policy and practice interventions to reduce child health inequalities in industrialised countries». (p. 425)
Questions/Hypothèses : « Does early life exposure to low income/SES have an adverse effect on physical health in later childhood/ adolescence and if so, what is the magnitude of the effect?  If an adverse effect is shown, is there evidence of a relationship between duration of early childhood low income/SES (transient v. chronic) and risk of adverse effects on physical health in later childhood/adolescence?  If an adverse effect is shown, how does low income/SES interact with other factors, such as parenting and family functioning, in influencing later childhood/adolescent physical health? Have mediators and/or moderators of the relationship been identified?» (p. 425)
Échantillon/Matériau : «The following electronic data bases were searched from their start dates to November 2011—Medline, Embase, and Psych-Info […] There were 1,378 abstracts that were identified from which 68 full text papers were obtained. Nine studies fulfilled the study criteria.» (p. 426)
Type de traitement des données : Réflexion critique
«There is consistent evidence from the review that early life exposure to low income/SES has an adverse effect on physical health in later childhood/adolescence although odds ratios vary by outcome studied and timing and duration of poverty exposure, and not all studies report statistically significant odds ratios at the 5% level. The evidence supports an association but is not proof of causality. Based on the papers identified by our review, the research questions addressing a relationship with duration of poverty in early childhood, and mediation/moderation of the relationship under study, remain unanswered. We found only one study comparing the impact of transitory and chronic low income/SES before the age of 5 years on asthma aged 5–7 years. Although the findings of this study suggest that early childhood exposure to chronic low income/SES carries a higher risk of subsequent asthma, this constitutes only limited evidence of a relationship between duration of early life exposure and later physical health. Belsky et al. reported that parenting mediated some but not all of the effect of low income/SES on parent reported child health status at 6 years of age. No other included study reported on mediation/moderation of the low income/SES and later physical health relationship.» (p. 430)
Poverty and Chronic Illness in Early Childhood: A Comparison Between the United Kingdom and Quebec
Référence bibliographique 
Nikiéma, Béatrice, Spencer, Nick et Séguin, Louise. 2010. «Poverty and Chronic Illness in Early Childhood: A Comparison Between the United Kingdom and Quebec ». Pediatrics, vol. 125, no 3, p. E499-E507.
Intentions : « Our goal was to examine the association between poverty, in the first and fourth years of life and cumulatively in the first and fourth years of life, and the health of children in the fourth year of life in the UK Millennium Cohort Study and in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). » (p. e1)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study of 14 556 children and from the QLSCD of 1950 children were analyzed. Comparable measures of poverty were households in receipt of the safety net benefit: income support in the United Kingdom and social welfare in Quebec. Three parent-reported health indicators were examined: asthma attack, long-standing illness, and limiting long standing illness by the fourth year of life. Associations were explored with logistic regression modeling controlling for child characteristics and maternal education. » (p. e1)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Poverty only in the first year of life significantly increased the risk of asthma attacks and limiting long-standing illness in the fourth year of life among UK children; trends were in the expected direction in the QLSCD but did not reach statistical significance. Poverty in the fourth year of life only significantly increased the risk of all 3 outcomes for UK children but not for Quebec children. For children experiencing poverty in both the first and fourth years of life, the risks for all 3 outcomes also increased in the United Kingdom, whereas only the risk of limiting long-standing illness increased in Quebec. Adjustment for confounding had little effect on the increased risks associated with poverty. […] These findings suggest that experience of poverty at various times in early childhood increases the risk of asthma attacks and chronic illness in the fourth year of life; however, they also indicate that poverty at different stages of the early childhood life course may have different effects on chronic illness in different country settings. » (p. e1)