Référence bibliographique 
O’Loughlin, Jennifer, O’Loughlin, Erin K., Wellman, Robert J., Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre, Dugas, Erika N., Chagnon, Miguel, Dutczak, Hartley, Laguë, Johanne et McGrath, Jennifer J. 2017. «Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence ». Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 61, no 3, p. 363-370.
«Because little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation, our objective in this study was to determine whether a range of established predictors of initiation differ between early (by age 13 years), middle (by age 15 years), and late (by age 17 years) adolescence.» (p. 364)
Les données utilisées sont tirées d’une étude longitudinale (AdoQuest I, 2005-2011) menée auprès de 1801 enfants provenant de 29 écoles secondaires de la région montréalaise. Recrutés à l’âge de 10-11 ans, les jeunes ont été rencontrés à nouveau aux âges de 13-15 ans et 15-17 ans.
Type de traitement des données :
«Most exposures related to smoking in the social environment were consistently associated with initiation. Father’s smoking, a greater number of smokers in home, and more frequent exposure to smoking in cars were significant risk factors in all three age groups, while siblings’ and friends’ smoking were risk factors in early and late adolescence (they were not measured in middle adolescence). It is notable that the estimate for friends’ smoking decreased significantly (i.e., the CIs [confidence intervals] do not overlap) between early and late adolescence. Mother’s smoking and having no smoking ban at home were risk factors in early and middle adolescence but were not significant in late adolescence.» (p. 6) Authors conclude that the «findings substantiate that a key focus of tobacco control interventions must be to eliminate smoking in the social environment. Likely because of its role in modeling smoking behavior and in exposing youth to secondhand smoke, smoking in the social environment is a strong and consistent risk factor for initiation across adolescence. It is critical that parents and future parents who smoke understand the effects that their smoking may have on their offspring to make informed decisions about their own smoking.» (p. 369)