Impact of Conjugal Separation on Women’s Income in Canada: Does the Type of Union Matter?

Impact of Conjugal Separation on Women’s Income in Canada: Does the Type of Union Matter?

Impact of Conjugal Separation on Women’s Income in Canada: Does the Type of Union Matter?

Impact of Conjugal Separation on Women’s Income in Canada: Does the Type of Union Matter?

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Référence bibliographique [19411]

Le Bourdais, Céline, Jeon, Sung-Hee, Clark, Shelley et Lapierre-Adamcyk, Évelyne. 2016. «Impact of Conjugal Separation on Women’s Income in Canada: Does the Type of Union Matter? ». Demographic Research, vol. 35, p. 1489-1522.

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Fiche synthèse

1. Objectifs


Intentions :
The article aims to «measure the economic situation of married and cohabiting women after union dissolution in Canada in two time periods and in two different contexts: Québec, where nearly 40% of couples cohabit, and the other provinces, where only 14% of couples are in cohabiting unions.» (p. 1489)

Questions/Hypothèses :
«Based on the known differences in Québec and the other provinces in Canada and the empirical evidence reviewed above, we are led to formulate the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: We expect married women will experience larger declines than cohabiting women in family adjusted income following separation, because of their lower participation in the labor market and the fact that they are more likely to have children for whom they are the primary custodian. After controlling for labor force participation and number of children, we anticipate that these differences will diminish. Hypothesis 2: We expect the income gap between previously married and cohabiting women will be smaller in Québec than in the rest of Canada. […] Hypothesis 3: In both regions we expect the gap in post-separation income between previously married and cohabiting women will decrease over time, given that married women increased their participation in the labor market and thus their relative contribution to pre-dissolution household income.» (p. 1497-1498)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
«Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank, we employ both descriptive statistics and fixed effects models to compare adjusted family-based income prior to separation to income in the following five years for women aged 25-44 who separated in 1993-1994 and 2003-2004 in Québec and the rest of Canada.» (p. 1489)

Type de traitement des données :
Analyse statistique

3. Résumé


«After conjugal unions end, women frequently experience sharp declines in their economic status. The severity of this decline may depend on whether they were in a marital or a cohabiting union and may change over time.» (p. 1489) Data shows that «[a]ll women experienced a major loss of income after separation. Previously cohabiting women tended to fare better than formerly married women, although after controlling for employment, number of children, and other factors married women did marginally better in the earlier cohort. Differences between married and cohabiting women tended to be smaller in Québec than in the rest of Canada for the later cohort. […] Both context and time period shape married and cohabiting women’s economic wellbeing following separation. As cohabitation becomes more common and more closely resembles marriage, as it does in Québec, long-term differences between marriage and cohabitation may diminish.» (p. 1489-1490)